Jean-Michel Basquiat ranks among the most expensive artists of the world in the meantime, in 2017 an untitled work by him was sold for 110 million dollars to a Japanese collector. The Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt dedicates Jean-Michel Basquiat the first retrospective in Germany since 1986 now. Boom for Real shows about 100 paintings, drawings, notes, photographs and objects from private and public collections. The show which was organized together with the London Barbican Centre explores Basquiat’s development from the unknown graffiti artist and enfant terrible of the club scene of Downtown Manhattan to the superstar of the American art of the eighties and illustrates his relation to music, literature, TV and the art history of the Western world.
Jean-Michel Basquiat who had Caribbean roots was the first African American artist who had succeeded in prevailing in an art market that was dominated by whites and racism. His creative intoxication during which he produced more than 1000 paintings and 2000 drawings lasted ten years, in 1988 he died at the age of only 27 years of a heroin overdose, the magic age of the 27 Club also Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Jim Morrison and Amy Winehouse belong to. His short career was like an explosion, his meteoric rise was driven by drug consumption and self-destruction, Jean-Michel Basquiat burned just as fast as he had arrived at the peak of the art world, thus becoming a myth of the eighties.
After a research of several years the curators of the exhibition, Eleanor Nairne und Dieter Buchhart, have filtered out from his legacy and decoded a selection of works many of which have never been seen in public before. To bring the spirit of the New Wave scene of the eighties back to live, the exhibition was designed as a parcours with twelve stations, with partly anthracite colored corridors that evoke the atmosphere of the club scene. Boom for Real is meant to direct the idealized view on Basquiat as mythical pop titan to the realistic facts and to decipher Basquiat’s intellectual deep dive into history analytically. The title of the exhibition Boom for Real was used by Basquiat on two of his paintings, Jimmy Best from 1981 and Untitled (Crown) from 1982, and is a characteristic example of his cryptic use of catchphrases. For Jean-Michel Basquiat Boom for Real was a kind of expression for something that really inspired him.
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Jimmy Best, 1981
With his technique of sampling Basquiat anticipated the copy and paste era.
Basquiat’s enigmatic art has endlessly been interpreted and decoded in the last 30 years, but evades a simple labeling until today. The label neo-expressionism comes closest to his art, but is insufficient. His pictures are an infinite crossover that mixes youth and high culture, graffiti, text fragments, TV trash, cartoons, packaging waste and references to art history. Tags of street art are combined with mysterious drawing codes to an anarchic encyclopedia of subculture full of abysmal depths. The viewer is threatened to get lost in the maze of Basquiat’s mindmaps, despite all delight in combining chains of associations a complete decipherment of his pictures seems impossible. His approach already anticipates the copy and paste era by weaving a tight web of heterogeneous references out of everyday impressions that he allows to be affected by without restraint.
These realtime thought minutes are clearly closer to the principle of automatic writing, as it has been promoted by surrealism, than to the label of neo-expressionism. In Basquiat’s case, however, it’s not his inner visions which he reveals, but the information overload of the outside world. Basquiat himself explained: “I’m usually in front of the television. I have to have some source material around me to work off.” This eclectic approach to mix snippets of daily life beyond recognition can be most likely compared to the technique of sampling in music. Basquiat’s pictures, also the ones on canvas, are strictly speaking no paintings, but impulsive drawings of the horror vacui, which reflect the rhythm of jazz in their vibrant breathlessness, which he adored. His drawing technique reminds of Art Brut and children’s drawings, which induced him to point out that he could really draw.
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Glenn, 1984
Jean-Michel Basquiat was a permanent fixture of the music scene of New York in the eighties, he regularly frequented the legendary Mudd Club, where concerts, exhibitions and fashion shows took place. Among the illustrious guests of the party scene in Downtown Manhattan were Klaus Nomi, Grace Jones, Andy Warhol and Madonna, who Basquiat had a short affair with. Other famous locations were the Area with its theme parties and the Canal Zone, a huge loft in the Canal Street that was run by British artist Stan Peskett. The colorful night owls of the downtown culture represented an ideal network to boost a potential career in the creative scene, everyone knew each other. Among Basquiat’s friends who he had met in Downtown Manhattan were Fab 5 Freddy, Michael Holman, Keith Haring, Debbie Harry and Glen O’Brian who was famous for his television show TV Party. The melting pot of creators in New York in the eighties was comparable to Paris in the twenties, in the underground scene the first beats of hip-hop could be listened to, while David Bowie started his world career and graffiti sprayers from the Bronx covered Downtown Manhattan with their tags. Jean-Michel Basquiat was present everywhere and always right in the middle, he span records as DJ, created installations for theme parties and designed invitations.
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Fab 5 Freddy, Futura 2000, Keith Haring, Eric Haze, LA2, Tseng Kwong Chi, Kenny Scharf and others, Untitled (Fun Fridge), 1982
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Fab 5 Freddy, Futura 2000, Keith Haring, Eric Haze, LA2, Tseng Kwong Chi, Kenny Scharf and others, Untitled (Vase), 1982
Downtown 81 brings the eighties to life.
However, the biotope in which the downtown culture flourished also had its dark side, which the exhibition unfortunately ignores by romanticizing memories of the eighties. New York in the eighties was run-down and on the verge of financial collapse. The Lower East Side rather looked like a war area, blazes were flaring in the night in the Bronx as property owners tried to pocket insurance sums for their ruined buildings. Vacant building sites gaped in dismal streets of houses, while so-called “shooting factories” sprang up like mushrooms in the Bowery Street in East Village, where drug dealers dropped their drugs in plastic buckets from the roofs. The cliché of shabby coolness was contrasted by social reality, with poverty, violent crimes, drug addiction and the omnipresent racism in the US being rampant. Life in New York was a struggle for survival, racist hostility was part of Jean-Michel Basquiat’s everyday life.
An impressive memorial of this period is the movie Downtown 81, which was produced by Maripol and the script of which was written by Glen O’Brian. The plot is about a day in the life of an impoverished artist who is acted by Jean-Michel Basquiat. The Lounge Lizards and Kid Creole and the Coconuts composed the soundtrack for the film, with Debbie Harry from Blondie having a surprise scene as fairy tale princess. Due to financial problems the film couldn’t be released before 2000, as the soundtrack of the dialogues was lost, Basquiat’s voice had to be dubbed by Saul Williams. The canvases Jean-Michel Basquiat is painting on in the movie were acquired as props and are among his first paintings ever.
Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt, Basquiat – Boom for Real
Jean-Michel Basquiat knew that he couldn’t rely on the fairy tale princess to escape from this swamp and to make it big. Because this was his goal, he wanted to make it, at all costs. As black immigrant kid with a Puerto Rican mother and a Haitian father he had the most unfavorable conditions for this. Contrary to the legend of the boy from the streets he came from a middle class family, as son of a tax consultant he grew up in an environment that was by no means uneducated. His mother regularly visited the museums of New York together with him, he was multilingual and literate.
Samo© – Basquiat’s clever guerilla marketing.
The most dramatic experience of his childhood was a car accident, when he was struck by a car at the age of seven and had to stay in hospital for several weeks due to his injuries. Basquiat’s spleen had to be removed, which was to return in his images in pictograms of accidents, ambulances and organs again and again. To help him to work through what he had experienced, his mother got him the illustrated book Gray’s Anatomy with medical studies by Leonardo da Vinci. The book captured him and became one of his most important sources of inspiration for his art. Jean-Michel Basquiat was also traumatized by the everyday violence committed by his father, who hit him with belts until he was bleeding and finally even stabbed him with a knife in his bottom.
After the knife attack he fled from his home in Brooklyn at the age of 17, dropped out of school and tried to survive in New York by himself. For a long time he didn’t have a flat of his own, he stayed over at friends’ places or on the Washington Square. Without artistic education Jean-Michel Basquiat lived his dream of becoming an artist and absorbed anything as a self-taught man. He said about himself: “I never went to an art academy. I just looked closely.” He didn’t make any difference between high and low culture, for him any expression of human culture was worthy to find its way into his pictures. The racism Basquiat faced every day put him in a rage that became the drive for his art and his ambition to take the art world that was dominated by whites by storm.
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Five Fish Species, 1983
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Untitled, 1982
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Untitled (Area), 1985
And he had a plan which realized the strategy of guerilla marketing in a perfect way, anticipating the art of Banksy. Jean-Michel Basquiat was attracted by the graffiti scene and admired their skillful tags, which he couldn’t accomplish himself. But this deficit he could more than compensate through his intellect, the poetry of words became his weapon. Together with his schoolmate Al Diaz they were roaming the streets of SoHo and sprayed their tag Samo© to the houses that were close to galleries. Samo© was an acronym of “same old shit“. Their statements differed from the common graffiti in their play on words and their philosophical depth. Often they started with “Samo© as an end to…“ and ended with ”the police“, “all the mediocre art“, “mass mindlessness“ or “the 9-to-5“. Or they asked the public riddles with poetic, enigmatic multiple-choice questions. Samo© didn’t fail to create an impact and aroused the desired attention of the emerging art scene in SoHo and the Lower East Side. The plan was to bear fruit, when the SoHo Weekly News called for the anonymous artists in 1978 to get in contact with the newspaper. Hereupon the magazine Village Voice mentioned the names Jean and Al for the first time, who broke off their collaboration shortly afterwards. Now Basquiat wrote “Samo© is dead“ onto the walls, which meant that Jean-Michel Basquiat was Jean-Michel Basquiat now. He was ready for the next phase of his conquering expedition.
With self-made postcards Basquiat struggled to survive in New York.
To survive financially he designed and sold self-made postcard collages together with Jennifer Stein, the student and assistant of Stan Peskett. To reproduce them they used a color copying machine which has been introduced by Xerox just a few years ago. For their collages they got inspired by everyday things, such as advertisements, newspaper articles and waste from the street. Having 15 dollars in their pockets after a successful day of selling meant a bonanza for them. When they passed by the restaurant WPA by chance and discovered Andy Warhol together with his dealer through the window having lunch, Basquiat entered the restaurant immediately and approached Andy Warhol’s table to offer him his postcards. Warhol purchased two copies indeed, on one postcard was written “stupid games – bad ideas”.
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Untitled (Black), 1981
Jean-Michel Basquiat, King of the Zulus, 1984-85
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Keith Haring, 1983
Basquiat’s sources of inspiration were just as multifaceted as his interests. He owned a comprehensive library of artist monographs and exhibition catalogues, more than 1000 video cassettes of his favorite films, among them the surreal films by David Lynch and Apocalypse Now, and innumerable records. He was interested in Renaissance artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and Titian, but Edouard Manet, Marcel Duchamp and Henri Matisse as well. An especially strong influence on Basquiat’s work, however, had Pablo Picasso, Guernica was one of the first images that had impressed him strongly in his childhood. The cubist portrait of Dora Maar at the Metropolitan Museum from Picasso’s series of weeping women was to pave the way for Basquiat’s depiction of faces. Also the Cy Twombly retrospective at the Whitney Museum in 1979 had a strong impact on Basquiat, he adopted Twombly’s scribbled bar codes as filling element for his exuberant compositions.
The artistic message of this eclectic sampling of source material was the examination of racism and the black civil rights movement, which is why Jean-Michel Basquiat included references to the “black culture” and its heroes again and again. In the US blacks could make a career only in the areas of sport and music, from all the other sociocultural areas they were excluded. Basquiat continuously referred to Olympic champion Jesse Owens, boxer Jack Johnson, baseball player Hank Aaron and the jazz legends Louis Armstrong, Charlie Parker und Miles Davis. Jean-Michel Basquiat was aware of the fact that fine arts represented the playground of the whites and that he had to double his effort, if he wanted to have a chance, but his self-confidence was strong enough to crown himself. The crown originally was a symbol from the graffiti scene, which sprayer added to their work, if they felt worthy. Basquiat made the crown a label of his pictures and his dreadlocks haircut.
Jean-Michel Basquiat, A Panel of Experts, 1982
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Untitled, 1983
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Self-Portrait, 1983
A true artist in Downtown Manhattan played in a band.
He didn’t have any money to buy paint and canvas. Therefore he brought window frames, laths and trash from the ruined buildings of the Lower East Side along to make his pictures from. For Basquiat words were on an equal footing with drawings. He filled notebooks with poems, text fragments and wordplays the poetic rhythm of whose reflected his love of music, the term “Famous Negro Atheletes“ for instance is deliberately misspelled in order to enhance its importance and rhythm. Numerous entries in his notebooks and poems which are exhibited at the Schirn bear witness to the importance of notebooks for Basquiat’s work and his development to become a street philosopher.
The show New York/New Wave at the P.S.1 was the artistic breakthrough for Jean-Michel Basquiat. Diego Cortez who had co-founded the famous Mudd Club as well presented 1600 works of more than 100 well-known and unknown artists, musicians and writers, among them Robert Mapplethorpe, Andy Warhol, David Byrne and William Burroughs, to demonstrate the influence of New Wave and No Wave on the official culture of Downtown Manhattan. Basquiat had got a prominent presentation area for his pictures the hanging of whose is partly reconstructed at the Schirn. In the underground scene Jean-Michel Basquiat was very well connected, now he was also discovered by representatives of the high culture, by collectors and dealers.
Jean-Michel Basquiat, reconstruction of the hanging at the P.S.1, 1981
The New York club scene of the eighties received their vibrant energy from music and drugs. The most popular drug was heroin and also Basquiat consumed it regularly respectively was addicted to it. In the seventies bebop had emerged under the influence of Basquiat’s idol Charlie Parker, in the eighties hip-hop was the most innovative musical movement of the time. Through Fab 5 Freddy Basquiat made the acquaintance of the future stars of this scene, the experimental artist and musician Rammellzee and the graffiti artist Toxic. Then playing in a band was proper to any artist in Downtown Manhattan, no matter which genre he belonged to. Together with his friends also Basquiat founded a band and named it Gray, probably in reference to Gray’s Anatomy, which continued to have a strong influence on his pictures. In 1983 Basquiat and Rammellzee produced their only single Beat Bop in the early rap style under Basquiat’s record label Tartown. For the record he designed the cover design with anatomical drawings and the crown.
Rammellzee vs.K-Rob, production and cover design Jean-Michel Basquiat, Beat Bop, 1983
When he rose to fame, Basquiat painted in suits by Armani just for fun.
The hype about Jean-Michel Basquiat as upcoming shooting star of the New York art scene started to gain momentum. In 1981 art critic René Ricard wrote his famous essay The Radiant Child in the Artforum, where Basquiat was written about as wunderkind in great detail for the first time. For 200 dollars he sold his first picture to Debbie Harry from Blondie, which was a fortune for a destitute artist as Jean-Michel Basquiat. Basquiat was a master of clever self-promotion just as he mastered the sampling of high and low culture. Gallerist Annina Nosei contracted him and made him a studio in the basement of her gallery available, where he could paint on proper canvases for the first time without having financial worries. In a true eruption of prolific creativity he created 250 paintings and 500 drawings between 1981 and 1982, the pictures of his first solo exhibition at the gallery of Annina Nosei were sold immediately. He worked obsessively, always painting several pictures at the same time, jumping back and forth between them like a hip-hop dancer, with the TV permanently running. With New Wave music, Johann Sebastian Bach and the Bolero by Ravel, which he had running in a continuous loop, he stimulated himself. Being asked, what his medium was, he answered: “Extra large.”
The simultaneous production of art, the high pressure of expectations of the art market and the maintenance of his network with exhausting club sessions took their toll and could be accomplished only by means of drugs. In the scene there was the rumor in good fun, that Basquiat was detained in the basement of Annina Nosei as a painting slave, which, however, wasn’t completely wrong. Basquiat struggled with the question, how to deal with fame as an artist. In 1982 he was the youngest artist ever to participate in documenta 7 in Kassel. Basquiat’s meteoric rise to fame from an unknown street artist to the number one of the American art world took only three years. He lived a time-lapse life and probably was aware that he didn’t have much time left for his large oeuvre.
Jean-Michel Basquiat, King Zulu, 1986
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Helmet, 1981
The success changed his life completely, suddenly he was rolling in money and didn’t know, what to do with it. He didn’t have a bank account and got solely paid in cash, or in drugs. After his breakthrough he was said to have consumed drugs worth 500 dollars on a daily basis. At wild parties caviar was served and champaign flowed like water. Now Basquiat liked to wear suits by Armani when he was painting, which he deliberately besmirched with paint. He was the cash cow of the American art jet set, who had pulverized the top-heavy minimalism of the sixties. The collectors scrambled for his paintings and New York’s leading gallery owners sensed the opportunity for big business.
Warhol was impressed, how fast Basquiat painted.
Bruno Bischofsberger, Andy Warhol’s worldwide dealer, signed Basquiat, in addition he got contracts with Mary Boone in New York and Larry Gagosian in Los Angeles. It was Bischofsberger as well, who introduced Basquiat to Andy Warhol. For Jean-Michel Basquiat Warhol became a friend and mentor, benefiting himself from Basquiat’s youthful verve, as his own star was waning in the eighties. In 1982 Bischofsberger took Basquiat to Andy Warhol’s studio to shoot large-size Polaroids. After the photo shoot Basquiat didn’t stay for lunch, but hastened to his studio to paint the image Dos Cabezas (Two Heads) after a double portrait of himself and Warhol. With a dripping wet image he returned to Bischofsberger and Warhol, who stated jealously: “He is faster than me.”
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Dos Cabezas, 1982
Warhol continuously tried to persuade Basquiat to give up drugs, but without success. At the same time their friendship was characterized by a productive rivalry, at Bruno Bischofsberger’s suggestion they painted together and created about 150 collective works. Some of these works, among them Arm and Hammer, are on display at the exhibition of the Schirn. The highlight of this collaboration was meant to be the joint exhibition at the gallery of Tony Shafrazi in 1985, which was promoted as boxing match between Warhol and Basquiat in the marketing campaign. However, the exhibition was not well received by the critics. When the New York Times called Basquiat Warhol’s mascot in their slating review, Basquiat was deeply hurt and broke off all contact to Warhol abruptly.
Michael Halsband, Andy Warhol and Jean-Michel Basquiat, 1985, © Michael Halsband
Jean-Michel Basquiat and Andy Warhol, Arm and Hammer II, 1984
The New York Times had hit Jean-Michel Basquiat’s sore spot, the scorcher represented a turning point in his life. After he had been only moving up at a breathtaking speed for years, now the tragic period of his self-destruction set in. He had arrived at the peak in the shortest possible time, he had achieved everything an artist could ever think of, and felt empty inside and lonely. He cultivated friendships as long as he could benefit from them on his way to the top, now a distinct paranoia made things worse, as he suspected anyone of only being after his money. Although he could afford everything, he even didn’t get a cab as a black. His entire work was a scream for attention, a kind of protest against the discrimination against the African American population. His self-promotion as black Picasso in the midst of an art scene that was dominated by whites resulted from multiple personal and social traumata he was faced with as African American. In an interview he complained of blacks never being portrayed in a lifelike way in art. With his homage to black jazz and sport legends he spotlighted the sensitive issue of America.
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Untitled (Pablo Picasso), 1984
Everything, was Basquiat demanded, was respect.
When he flew to L.A. together with his friends Rammellzee and Toxic to prepare an exhibition at the gallery of Larry Gagosian, the trio called themselves the “Hollywood Africans” to protest against the notorious, still today existing racism in the American film industry. Basquiat who never wanted to be seen as black artist was cut to the quick by the mascot roasting of the New York Times. His conviction, that the quality of his art and not the color of his skin made the difference, began to totter. He was the exotic who had intruded into the territory of the whites, and was now their jester-in-chief. In his image Jesse his exploration of African culture and jazz becomes obvious by creating a link between the Jewish authors of Superman, the Nazis’ belief in the master race and the black sport legend Jesse Owens who disturbed Hitler’s Olympic Games. The most important message of his art and everything that drove him was demand for respect.
Andy Warhol’s attempts to reestablish the contact to Basquiat were categorically rejected by him. When Warhol died in 1987, Jean-Michel Basquiat was devastated, as he felt guilty of his death. The downward spiral he was in accelerated, his drug consumption increased excessively. Basquiat’s entire work is a memento mori, skulls are often the central element of his compositions. He mixed the vanitas motifs of the Renaissance artists with voodoo, as in Untitled from 1982, with the boxing figure having a skull in reference to Baron Samedi, the divine spirit-being of voodoo. Also the painting that realized the auction record of 110 million dollars in 2017 is characterized by a skull.
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Untitled, 1982
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Leonardo da Vinci’s Greatest Hits, 1982
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Moses and the Egyptians, 1982
The awareness of his own mortality, maybe even a latent death wish, grew in Jean-Michel Basquiat’s last years of his life. In the picture Riding with Death, one of his last paintings that were shown at his last exhibition in 1988, a death horseman riding on a skeletonized horse is depicted. Basquiat’s exploding backgrounds have given way to a monochrome plane that emphasizes the morbid death ride. On a different picture he repeated the words “Man dies” again and again. It represented his personal farewell and the one of the era of Downtown Manhattan in the eighties. The party was over, in the creative scene the ranks were decimated with every single drug death. The AIDS epidemic at the end of the 1980s increased the losses caused by drug consumption, it was like the plague. Jean-Michel Basquiat who had undergone a detoxification treatment shortly before and was temporarily clean fell back into his old habits. In summer 1988 he died of a heroin overdose.
For the museums the hype about Jean-Michel Basquiat was too fast.
What remains of his legacy today, except from the record prices at the art market, 30 years after his death? One can safely contradict the statement of the curators, who have exalted Jean-Michel Basquiat to one of the most important artists of the 20th century to advertise the exhibition Boom for Real. He was surely the most hyped artist of the 20th century and his meteoric rise to fame was a shining example of how artist careers are made by the global players of the art market for greed for profit. Who could afford to buy a work by Basquiat after his death above all bought into the myth that was created around him. For the international museums the evolution of this myth was much too fast and the greed of the collectors much to strong, with the result that Jean-Michel Basquiat is hardly represented in any public collection.
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Ishtar, 1983
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Jawbone of an Ass, 1982
As no other one his work reflects the zeitgeist of the eighties in Downtown Manhattan. As no other one he has taken the technique of sampling, the approach of eclecticism to the extremes. By means of a clever combination of word and image he has created a reference system that projects the entire encyclopedia of mankind into his pictures. But these fragments don’t condense into a new, more profound meaning, that transcends their eclectic origin, but remain a superficial information overkill. Basquiat exegetes can get lost in the endless, enigmatic chains of associations his look-and-find pictures are characterized by, but viewers who don’t have the historic insider knowledge of the eighties at their command can’t be resented if they fail at deciphering Basquiat’s images and don’t see anything more in them than funny graffiti.
This, however, accounts for really great art, that it captures the viewer independently from his origin and the time he lives in through its visual messages by expressing the complexity of human existence through the seemingly most banal things. The oeuvre of Jean-Michel Basquiat, however, is the effervescent early work of a boy in search of identity, which unfortunately aborted much too soon to reach maturity and depth. To straighten things out, one should also consider, that Basquiat’s entire work was created under the impact of drugs, hence under irregular conditions, which has been rejected by many other great artists. If Jean-Michel Basquiat hadn’t chosen the early drug death and could have evolved his work over a longer period, he might have become one of the most important artists of the 20th century indeed. He surely would have added some amazing facets to the social media arts of the copy and paste era. However, his life and work were an inextricable unity that couldn’t last any longer than 27 years. What remains is the myth that obstructs a realistic view on his work.
Andy Warhol, Jean-Michel Basquiat, ca. 1982-86
Jean-Michel Basquiat, Self-Portrait, 1984
For the present much more important that his pictures is his legacy that he has left as black artist in the midst of a racist society. In 1983 the death of Michael Stewart shook the US. Stewart was an African American graffiti sprayer from the scene of Downtown Manhattan. When he was seized by a white police patrol when he was tagging, he was beaten to death by them. Jean-Michel Basquiat was devastated when he learned about the shocking news and just said: “It could have been me.” 35 years later the #BlackLivesMatter movement proves how deeply racism is rooted in America. After Barack Obama America rears its ugly head now represented by old white men who say “America first” and mean “white America first”. Therefore artists as Jean-Michel Basquiat are more important than ever today, because also success can be considered as a kind of discrimination.
16.02.18 – 27.05.18 Schirn Kunsthalle, Frankfurt am Main